Nature and sources of law

Schools of jurisprudence

Law and morality

Concept of rights and duties

Legal personality

Concepts of property, ownership and possession

Concept of liability

Law, poverty and development

Global justice

Modernism and post-modernism

Constitutional and Administrative Law

Preamble, fundamental rights and duties, directive principles of state policy.

Union and State executive and their interrelationship

Union and State legislature and distribution of legislative powers


Emergency provisions

Temporary, transitional and special provisions in respect of certain states

Election Commission of India

Nature, scope and importance of administrative law

Principle of natural justice

Judicial review of administrative actions – Grounds.

Public International Law and IHL

International law – Definition, nature and basis

Sources of International law

Recognition of states and governments

Nationality, immigrants, refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Extradition and asylum

United Nations and its organs

Settlement of international disputes

World Trade Organization (WTO)

International humanitarian law (IHL) – Conventions and protocols

Implementation of IHL – Challenges

Law of Crimes

General principles of criminal liability – Actus reus and mens rea, individual and

group liability and constructive liability

Stages of crime and inchoate crimes – Abetment, criminal conspiracy and attempt

General exceptions

Offences against human body

Offences against state and terrorism

Offences against property

Offences against women and children

Drug trafficking and counterfeiting

Offences against public tranquillity

Theories and kinds of punishments, compensation to the victims of crime

Law of Torts and Consumer Protection

Nature and definition of tort

General principles of tortious liability

General defenses

Specific torts – Negligence, nuisance, trespass and defamation

Remoteness of damages

Strict and absolute liability

Tortious liability of the State

The Consumer Protection Act 1986 – Definitions, consumer rights and redressal


The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 – No fault liability, third party insurance and claims


The Competition Act, 2002 – Prohibition of certain agreements, abuse of dominant

position and regulation of combinations

Commercial Law

Essential elements of contract and e-contract

Breach of contract, frustration of contract, void and voidable agreements

Standard form of contract and quasi-contract

Specific contracts – Bailment, pledge, indemnity, guarantee and agency

Sale of Goods Act, 1930

Partnership and limited liability partnership

Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881

Company law – Incorporation of a company, prospectus, shares and debentures

Company law – Directors and meetings

Corporate social responsibility

Family Law

Sources and schools

Marriage and dissolution of marriage

Matrimonial remedies – Divorce and theories of divorce

Changing dimensions of institution of marriage – Live-in relationship

Recognition of foreign decrees in India on marriage and divorce

Maintenance, dower and stridhan

Adoption, guardianship and acknowledgement

Succession and inheritance

Will, gift and wakf

Uniform Civil Code

Environment and Human Rights Law

Meaning and concept of ‘environment’ and ‘environmental pollution’

International environmental law and UN Conferences

Constitutional and legal framework for protection of environment in India

Environmental Impact Assessment and control of hazardous waste in India

National Green Tribunal

Concept and development of human rights

Universalism and cultural relativism

International Bill of Rights

Group rights – Women, children, persons with disabilities, elderly persons,

minorities and weaker sections

Protection and enforcement of human rights in India – National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Commission for Women, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes and National Commission for Backward Classes

Intellectual Property Law and Information Technology Law

Concept and meaning of intellectual property

Theories of intellectual property

International conventions pertaining to intellectual properties

Copyright and neighbouring rights – Subject matters, limitations and exceptions,

infringement and remedies

Law of patent – Patentability, procedure for grant of patent, limitations and

exceptions, infringement and remedies

Law of trademark – Registration of trademarks, kinds of trademarks, infringement

and passing off, remedies

Protection of Geographical Indications

Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge

Information technology law- digital signature and electronic signature, electronic

governance, electronic records and duties of subscribers

Cyber crimes, penalties and adjudication

Comparative Public Law and Systems of Governance

Comparative Law – Relevance, methodology, problems and concerns in Comparison

Forms of governments – Presidential and parliamentary, unitary and federal

Models of federalism – USA, Canada and India

Rule of Law – ‘Formal’ and ‘substantive’ versions

Separation of powers – India, UK, USA and France

Independence of judiciary, judicial activism and accountability – India, UK and


Systems of constitutional review – India, USA, Switzerland and France

Amendment of the Constitution – India, USA and South Africa

Ombudsman –Sweden, UK and India

Open Government and Right to Information – USA, UK and India